About Postbiotics

About Postbiotics

What are Postbiotics

Postbiotics are a mix of good metabolites produced by probiotics and their cell components that have beneficial health effects [1]. Examples of postbiotics include short chain fatty acids, antimicrobial compounds (bacterions), cell membrane compounds (plasmalogen), enzymes, bioactive biomolecule (exopolysaccharides) [2]. These compounds play different roles in modulating the immune system and maintaining our health. Depending on the type of postbiotics used, they can play a role in areas like immune health, gut and heart health. 

Postbiotics and Sports recovery

Sports can lead to transient immune depression during the training period [3]. Postbiotics can play a role in helping the recovery of the immune system from the stress of the training load. Certain postbiotic molecules (such as plasmalogens) have antioxidant properties thus able to help to alleviate the oxidative stress from the exercise [4]. Another Postbiotics, LC-plasma has been studied to help with sports recovery where it has been shown to reduce muscle degeneration and fatigue when consumed in conjunction with training hence allowing for shorter recovery time[5,6].

Postbiotics and Immune health (Inflammation and common diseases)

Postbiotic metabolites from strains like Bifidobacterium longum and L. plantarum can upregulate anti-inflammatory function in the gut, as well as having antioxidant activity properties. Thus they are able to reduce blood lipid peroxidation as well as  control acute inflammation [7]. Another postbiotics, bacterions, with anti-microbial activity contribute to reduce susceptibility to pathogens and help in controlling drug-resistant bacteria[8] and thus reducing the likelihood of falling sick due to pathogenic bacteria infections. Additionally, there has also been studies to show that strains of Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactococcus lactis postbiotics are able to improve resistance to common cold infections through immunomodulation of different areas of the immune system (Peyer’s patches [9] and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) [10] respectively).

Postbiotics and Gut health

Indoles are group of compounds produced by bacteria, play a role in improving gut health where they work to restore the damaged gut lining through promoting production of proteins and mucin[11]. It has been shown that issues like leaky gut and IBS often present symptoms of damaged gut lining, hence through restoring the gut lining it helps to alleviate the discomforts. Furthermore, the fatty acids such as butyrate and propionate reduces the inflammation in the gut and also contributes to the integrity of the epithelial lining [12]. 

Postbiotic and heart health 

Exopolysaccharides are long and large carbohydrate molecules that have been shown to have cholesterol-lowering effects due to their cholesterol-binding abilities [13]. This allows cholesterol to be removed from the blood circulation which contributes to reducing the risk of cholesterol build up causing the formation of arterial plaque [14]. 
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